Propaganda is a type of communication used to shape opinions, attitudes, and beliefs in order to influence people's behavior. During World War One, governments used propaganda as a tool to rally their citizens for the war effort. Nations used posters, newspapers, books, magazines, movies and radio to try to influence their citizens to support their countries' causes. Many governments exaggerated enemy actions and atrocities, and painted their own forces as heroes. They also created stories to rally citizens to fight, and to build morale among their troops. Additionally, many nations sought to discredit enemy nations. In the era prior to mass media, propaganda was typically disseminated through pamphlets that included wartime sloganizing, graphic images of warfare, and distorted/stereotypical racial portrayals.