Tectonic Plate Movement: Tectonic plates are large slabs of the Earth's crust that move, interact, and cause a variety of geologic processes. Plate movement is responsible for the formation of mountains, volcanoes, and earthquake activity. Plate movements also play a role in the formation of continents and the movements of large landmasses.
Sea Floor Spreading: Sea floor spreading is the process by which tectonic plates move apart, forming new seafloor in the process. As plates move apart, molten rock (magma) rises from beneath the Earth's surface, creating new mantle and crust on the sea floor. Over time, this process causes the sea floor to become wider and thicker in the area where the plates are moving apart.
Landmass Fusion: Landmass fusion is the process by which large landmasses join together to form a supercontinent. It happens when two tectonic plates collide, forcing the two landmasses into one larger piece of land. Landmass fusion is responsible for the formation of supercontinents like Pangea and Laurasia. Plate tectonics also contributed to the formation of more recent supercontinents like Gondwana, which formed about 500 million years ago.